Humira dose escalation

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See Info For An Rx Treatment Option For Adults With Moderate/Severe Rheumatoid Arthritis. Visit The Patient Site To Learn About A Treatment Option For Adults In this study real life nationwide cohort of Crohn's patients treated with adalimumab dose escalation was needed in 34% and was successful in 67%. Dose de-escalation was attempted in 54% and was successful in 63%. Overall 71% of patients maintained long term response on adalimumab

HUMIRA Pen 80 mg/0.8 mL -. Pediatric Ulcerative Colitis Starter Package. Continue the recommended pediatric dosage in patients who turn 18 years of age and who are well-controlled on their HUMIRA regimen. 1. *Administered as two 80‑mg injections in one day or as one 80‑mg injection per day for two consecutive days Escalation to weekly adalimumab dosing demonstrated clinical benefits for patients who lost response to therapy and may be beneficial for patients not initially responding to induction therapy. No new safety risks were identified with weekly dosing Background/Aims: Adalimumab dose escalation is one of the most important options in refractory Crohn's disease patients with loss of response to adalimumab The recommended subcutaneous dosage of HUMIRA for adult patients with hidradenitis suppurativa (HS) is an initial dose of 160 mg (given in one day or split over two consecutive days), followed by 80 mg two weeks later (Day 15). Begin 40 mg weekly or 80 mg every other week dosing two weeks later (Day 29) In many regulatory territories, patients with Crohn disease (CD) who lose response to adalimumab at a dose of 40 mg given every other week may be given an escalation to 40 mg every week

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Adalimumab dose escalation and dose de-escalation success

Dosing for Ulcerative Colitis - Humir

HUMIRA was studied in over 600 adult patients like you with hidradenitis suppurativa—the largest clinical trial completed for HS to date. In clinical trials, HUMIRA was proven in many adult patients to reduce the total number of inflammatory nodules and abscesses by at least half without an increase in draining wounds and abscesses in just 3 months Temporary ADA dose escalation appears to be an effective means of re-inducing response or remission in secondary non-responders with CD. These pilot data could be used to inform a prospective randomized trial to confirm the efficacy and safety of such an approach ed daily dose. Dose escalation prevalence and magnitude were used to quantify the equivalent patient treatment rate representing the number of patients per 100 that could have been treated with standard dosing, given the prevalence of dose escalation in the treated population. RESULTS: 7,028 patients (2,406 infliximab, 1,966 adalimumab, 1,745.

Dose escalation is associated with increases in treatment costs while clinical impact is uncertain. It differs from administering a drug at a higher dose as dose escalation refers to an increase in dose of a drug above the recommended dose, either by increasing the size of th TNF-blocker dose escalation has been well documented in the literature; however, the comparative effectiveness of these agents remains uncertain. OBJECTIVE: To compare the effectiveness and dose escalation rates of etanercept, adalimumab, and infliximab in US community settings

Escalation to weekly dosing recaptures response in

Dose escalation, in terms of actual administered dose or an increase in dosing frequency, can be in response to a disease flare or attenuation and loss of response to therapy. In the present study, dose escalation ranged from 5% to 28%, depending on the data and analysis type and medication administered Dosing was consistent with the US product label for both Entyvio and Humira ®; no dose escalation was permitted for either treatment group. 3 Click below to see full study design and additional study details Adalimumab is approved for the treatment of hidradenitis suppurativa (HS), plaque psoriasis, and other inflammatory conditions. Our objective was to examine the safety of adalimumab administered every other week (EOW) and every week (EW) in patients with HS and psoriasis and to investigate informative data from non-dermatologic indications. The safety of adalimumab 40-mg EOW versus EW dosing. In the case of low or undetectable adalimumab trough levels, dose escalation to 40 mg weekly is recommended, whereas high antibody titers or adverse events frequently require switching to an alternative anti-TNF agent such as infliximab Current medical literature has shown improved Crohn's disease outcomes when dose escalation is used to recover lost response. In this case, the patient had symptoms and a low drug level on the standard dose of Humira (Humira 40 mg every two weeks) until Humira was increased to 40 mg weekly and has occasional breakthrough symptoms on Humira 40.

escalationand when. What are the results of the dose escalation with regard to a large panel of established parameters on disease signs and symptoms as well as quality-of-life. c) To analyze the benefitof dose escalation with regard to long-term drug survival rates of HUMIRA® compared to previously reported registry data 3. Baert et al. Incidence and Predictors of Success of Adalimumab Dose Escalation and De-escalation in Ulcerative Colitis: a Real-World Belgian Cohort Study. J Crohn's Colitis. 2013;7(2):154-60. 4. Taxonera et al. Adalimumab Maintenance Treatment in Ulcerative Colitis: Outcomes by Prior Anti-TNF Use and Efficacy of Dose Escalation Biologic Drug Dose Escalation Page 2 of 7 7. Dose escalation does not occur at frequency interval detriments of no more than every 2 weeks from previous requested frequency and no more frequent than what is listed in table 1 (see Appendix D). Approval duration: 6 months or through remainder of the current authorization B. Other diagnoses.

Adalimumab Dose-Escalation Therapy Is Effective in

  1. View Benefits, Risks, Full Safety & Prescribing Info, And Boxed Warning. Find HUMIRA® Patient Resources & Learn How To Properly Inject Medication
  2. Dose escalation was associated with shorter disease duration (OR = 1.75, p = 0.026) and corticosteroid use. Drug retention rates were 62.7%, 72.3%, 75.4% after 1 year follow-up for Remicade®, Inflectra® and Humira®, which decreased to 38.3% and 52.1% for Remicade® and Humira® at 3 years
  3. The proportion of patients requiring dose-escalation from adalimumab 40mg every other week to 40mg every week and the success rate of this intervention. Success of dose-escalation is defined based on a positive physician global assessment and absence of blood on two consecutive visits at least 3 months apart from each other
  4. e whether dose escalation of infliximab was a cost-effective strategy compared with adalimumab initiation after loss of response to 5 mg/kg of infliximab
  5. g) was also recorded. The need for dose escalation was defined on an individual basis by the primary gastroenterologist. A dose escalation was defined as an increase in dosing frequency (e.g., 40 mg SQ every week) or dosage (e.g., 80 mg SQ). Data Analysi
Humira For Ulcerative Colitis

DE-ESCALATION STRATEGY: In patients treated with adalimumab, the dosing interval will be lengthened from 2 to 3 weeks. In patients treated with infliximab, the dosing interval will be lengthened from 8 to 12 weeks. FC rapid tests will be performed every 4 weeks and rapid tests for anti-TNF trough levels will be performed every 12 weeks Dose escalation is associated with increases in treatment costs while clinical impact is uncertain. It differs from administering a drug at a higher dose as dose escalation refers to an increase in dose of a drug above the recommended dose, either by increasing the size of th effect of dose escalation on the cost-effectiveness of etanercept plus methotrexate relative to adalimumab plus methotrexate.16 Methods Dose Escalation Data for Etanercept and Adalimumab We estimated dose escalation parameters using the IBM MarketScan Commercial and Medicare Supplemental Databases (January 2010-March 2016)

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Van de Vondel S, Baert F, Reenaers C, et al. Incidence and predictors of success of adalimumab dose escalation and de-escalation in ulcerative colitis: a real-world Belgian cohort study. Inflamm. Overall dose escalation rates of the biologic treatments adalimumab and infliximab were low in this study compared to published data from real-world cohorts and controlled trials. Dose escalation was associated with short disease duration prior to biologic initiation and the use of corticosteroids prior or post biologic initiation The request for dose escalation of Stelara to 90 mg every 6 weeks in this case is supported by current medical literature. Stelara is Food and Drug Administration (FDA) -approved for the treatment of Crohn's disease, and a large randomized controlled trial demonstrated safety and efficacy of Stelara for induction and maintenance of remission in. Dose escalation re-induced response for at least 6 months in 67%. Only abnormal CRP at start correlated with failure of dose escalation (p = 0.02). Dose de-escalation was attempted in 54% and was successful in 63%. After a median follow-up of 14 m adalimumab was discontinued in 29% of patients Abstract. Background and aims: Adalimumab is efficacious in inducing and maintaining remission in Crohn's disease but dose escalation is needed in 30-40% after 1 year. Attempts for dose de-escalation have not been studied. This study aimed to assess the need for, predictors, and outcome of dose escalation and de-escalation in a large cohort of adalimumab treated Crohn's patients

Dose Escalation of Adalimumab Can Overcome Loss of

  1. istration according to label (i.e. more than 40 mg ad
  2. Dose de-escalation was attempted in 71% (55/77) after a median of 4.3 (2.9-7.2) months and was successful in 80% (43/54). In this cohort, 56% of patients with UC required ADM dose escalation with a 60% success rate. Of note, most patients could be successfully de-escalated later on
  3. Adalimumab dose de-escalation was attempted in 32% of UC patients and 50% of CD patients. Survival curves showed that CD patients had an increased probability of dose de-escalation (p = 0.030). CONCLUSION: UC patients more frequently required adalimumab dose escalation than CD patients. UC patients required optimization earlier than CD patients
  4. Introduction Anti-TNF therapy is highly effective for induction and maintenance of remission in IBD. Subcutaneous agents such as adalimumab are licensed with a fixed dosing schedule irrespective of body weight. Aims/Background We aimed to study the frequency and outcomes of dose escalation with adalimumab and evaluate any relationship to patient body weight

Efficacy and Safety of Escalation of Adalimumab Therapy to

A Study of Adalimumab After Dose Escalation in Japanese Subjects With Crohn's Disease The safety and scientific validity of this study is the responsibility of the study sponsor and investigators. Listing a study does not mean it has been evaluated by the U.S. Federal Government with in˚ iximab required a dose escala-tion within a year.4 The FDA-approved labeling of adalimumab also allows for an increase to once-weekly dosing for rheumatoid arthritis.1 However, as spe-cialty pharmacists, we often see off-label dose escalation for other indications, such as once-weekly dosing of adalim-umab in Crohn disease Ma, C. et al. Adalimumab dose escalation is effective for managing secondary loss of response in Crohn's disease. Aliment. Pharmacol. Ther. 40, 1044-1055 (2014) This document presents the official recommendations of the American Gastroenterological Association (AGA) on therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). The guideline was developed by the AGA's Clinical Guidelines Committee and approved by the AGA Governing Board. It is accompanied by a Technical Review, which is a compilation of clinical evidence from which these. Drugs with short dosing intervals had the greatest difference in patient and claim dose-escalation prevalence. Adalimumab, certolizumab pegol, and golimumab all have 28-day dosing intervals, which are shorter than the other drugs of interest. Patient-level prevalence rates of dose escalation are shown in Figure 2 and Table 1. Infliximab-treated.

Dose Escalation and Healthcare Resource Use among

  1. Background/Purpose: Every other week adalimumab is used to treat juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) and other pediatric rheumatic diseases. It is common for pediatric rheumatologists to escalate to weekly dosing to achieve better disease control when needed. Weekly adalimumab has been demonstrated to be safe and effective in several autoimmune diseases in adults; however, to our [
  2. Dose escalation of adalimumab in patients with ulcerative colitis (UC) occurs frequently and is associated with substantial increases in drug costs in Germany, report researchers from that country. The researchers used 2010−2015 prescription data for 154 adults with UC newly treated with adalimumab (standard dose mean 2.93 mg/day) to assess.
  3. Additionally, empiric dose escalation may be associated with overdosing or underdosing.Targeting a specific drug level is a more efficient technique to dose a drug. Thus if a patient has lost response to anti-TNF therapy and there is a low drug level, there may be no anti-drug antibody, a low level of anti-drug antibody, a high level of anti.
  4. Advances in biologic treatments have led to a new therapeutic frontier for moderate-to-severe psoriasis. Nevertheless, the efficacy of anti-TNFα decreases with time, requiring adjustments to maintain valuable Psoriasis Area and Severity Index (PASI) and Dermatology Life Quality Index (DLQI) responses. To evaluate the efficacy and safety of adalimumab dose escalation (40 mg, subcutaneous, once.

Background: Pivotal trials for adalimumab (ADA) demonstrated effectiveness versus placebo for induction and maintenance of remission in moderate to severely active Crohn's disease (CD). Although the approved maintenance regimen in the U.S. is 40 mg subcutaneously every 14 days, some patients require dose-escalation ([DE] either an increase in. Adalimumab, on an every-other-week basis, is used to treat JIA and other pediatric rheumatic diseases, and it is common for pediatric rheumatologists to escalate to weekly dosing to achieve. keywords = adalimumab, disease flare, dose adjustment, dose escalation, pediatric Crohn's disease, author = Dubinsky, {Marla C.} and Joel Rosh and Faubion, {William A.} and Jaroslaw Kierkus and Frank Ruemmele and Hyams, {Jeffrey S.} and Samantha Eichner and Yao Li and Bidan Huang and Mostafa, {Nael M.} and Andreas Lazar and Thakkar, {Roopal.

Adalimumab dose escalation is effective and well tolerated

  1. Patients in whom adalimumab was discontinued prior to week eight of treatment were excluded. The co-primary efficacy endpoints were the cumulative probabilities of adalimumab failure-free survival and colectomy-free survival. We also assessed the need for and the effectiveness of adalimumab dose escalation
  2. The adalimumab efficacy in maintaining remission in patients may decrease over time, leading to secondary loss of response that may be managed with adalimumab dose escalation. It may be recommended that patients who experience loss of response reduce intervals between doses or escalate the adalimumab dose before switching to another treatment
  3. Adalimumab group: 386 patients receiving subcutaneous injections of 40 mg of adalimumab, with a total dose of 160 mg at week 1, 80 mg at week 2 and 40 mg every two weeks thereafter until week 50 (plus infusions of placebo) Standard dosing of vedolizumab and adalimumab were used, with no dose escalation permitted in either group

A Study of Adalimumab After Dose Escalation in Japanese Subjects With Crohn's Disease Official Title: A Multicenter Open-label Study of the Human Anti-Tumor Necrosis Factor (TNF) Monoclonal Antibody Adalimumab to Investigate Efficacy, Safety and Pharmacokinetics After Dose Escalation in Japanese Subjects With Crohn's Diseas In adults, dose escalation is an option for people whose disease has stopped responding. 3.5 For people aged 6-17 years, infliximab is given as a 5-mg/kg intravenous infusion followed by additional 5-mg/kg doses at 2 and 6 weeks after the first dose, then every 8 weeks thereafter However, more data are needed to define the optimal timing of bDMARD initiation and characterize efficacy of MTX dose escalation, to achieve optimal outcomes. Objectives: To compare achievement of MDA between adding adalimumab (ADA) vs escalating MTX dose in PsA pts with inadequate disease control after initial MTX therapy Incorporating dose escalation increased treatment costs for each sequence, but costs increased more with adalimumab, lowering the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio to $9,001. At willingness-to-pay levels of $100,000, the etanercept sequence was more cost-effective compared with the adalimumab sequence, with probability 0.55 and 0.85 in.

Consideration may be given to proactive TDM, and not only reactive TDM or empiric dose escalation, when optimizing adalimumab therapy, he said. - by Alex Youn CDAI at initiation of adalimumab induction treatment, and the duration between the date of firstdiagnosis of Crohn's disease and the date of initiation of adalimumab induction treatment). These results suggest that the efficacy of dose-escalation of adalimumab to 80 mg eow was not affected by the clinical background factors evaluated Infliximab (Remicade) is associated with high rates of dose escalation and a larger overall cost, compared with adalimumab (Humira) and etanercept (Enbrel) in patients with rheumatoid arthritis, without any additional gains in effectiveness, according to analysis of data from 563 patients in the Veterans Affairs Rheumatoid Arthritis registry

Rheumatoid arthritis (initiated by a specialist) By subcutaneous injection. For Adult. 40 mg every 2 weeks, then increased if necessary to 40 mg once weekly, alternatively 80 mg every 2 weeks, dose to be increased only in patients receiving adalimumab alone, review treatment if no response within 12 weeks Humira (adalimumab) What is Humira? Humira (also referred to by its generic name, adalimumab) is a biologic medication that is used to treat severe psoriasis and/or psoriatic arthritis. Biologics are modern medications that are made using living cells, designed to change or mimic processes within the human body. Humira is taken by injection 19. van den Reek JM, van Lümig PP, Kievit W, et al. Effectiveness of adalimumab dose escalation, combination therapy of adalimumab with methotrexate, or both in patients with psoriasis in daily practice. J Dermatolog Treat. 2013;24(5):201-209. doi: 10.3109/09546634.2012.751483. 20. Feldman SR, Zhao Y, Navaratnam P, Friedman HS, Lu J, Tran MH Because the efficacy of dose escalation to overcome antibodies is unclear, we assessed the impact of this strategy to overcome immunogenicity in IBD. METHODS: Infliximab and adalimumab dosing, drug, and antibody concentrations were extracted from a database of patients with IBD having specimens collected for therapeutic drug monitoring View Benefits, Risks, Full Safety & Prescribing Info, And Boxed Warning. Find Information about HUMIRA Citrate-free, An FDA-Approved Biologic Treatment Option

A persistent flare is defined as two of three of the following criteria persisting for > 8 weeks, despite dose escalation of adalimumab; FC >250 µg/g, CRP≥10 mg/L, HBI ≥5. Non-inferiority is reached if the difference in cumulative incidence of persistent flares not exceeds the non-inferiority margin of 15% Dose de-escalation was the first subsequent fortnightly adalimumab dose that was ≥50% lower than the escalated dose, back to the recommended maintenance dose. A sensitivity analysis was conducted to capture patients with ≥30% and ≥50% increases in fortnightly adalimumab dose Approval of Humira dose escalation to 40 mg weekly will require documentation of partial response to every other week dosing. XELJANZ/XELJANZ XR: Length of benefit. See next column. Ankylosing spondylitis: CIMZIA. Initial dose: 400 mg SC initially and at Weeks 2 and 4 Dose escalation of anti-TNF and other biologic agents induces clinical benefit in select patients. 5,10 For patients receiving maintenance infliximab therapy, approximately 10% per year benefit from escalated dosing. 11 Increasing serum infliximab dosage was associated with normalization of CRP in inflammatory patients. 12 In a recent meta.

The recommended dose of Humira for adult patients is an initial dose of 80 mg (as one 80 mg injection or two 40 mg injections), followed by 40 mg fortnightly, starting one week after the initial dose. Continued therapy beyond 16 weeks should be carefully reconsidered in a patient not responding within this time period Baert F, Glorieus E, Reenaers C et al. Adalimumab dose escalation and dose de-escalation success rate and predictors in a large national cohort of Crohn's patients. J Crohn's Colitis 2013;7:154-160. Article Google Scholar 7. Viazis N, Anastasiou T, Koukouratos M et al. DOP085 Success rate of dose de-escalation in patients with. Adalimumab monotherapy was administered at the dose of 160/80 mg for the induction regimen and 40 mg every other week for maintenance. Dose escalation was defined as increasing the frequency to weekly injections

What to Do When Biologic Agents Are Not Working in

Following dose de-escalation, patients should continue to be followed with proactive TDM to maintain adequate infliximab concentrations and avoid relapse. In conclusion, reactive TDM is the more commonly used strategy and recommended in most guidelines, while proactive TDM is emerging as a new therapeutic strategy and recommended by some groups. Higher targets may also be required during induction, and patients with suboptimal response during induction may benefit from empiric dose escalation, unless failure due to ADAs is suspected. Data for adalimumab are overall less robust than for infliximab, and many questions remain However, as specialty pharmacists, we often see off-label dose escalation for other indications, such as once-weekly dosing of adalimumab in Crohn disease. Escalating doses of these TNF inhibitors is widespread practice that increases not only drug and administrative costs (direct costs) but also related costs, such as those associated with.

Adalimumab dose escalation is effective for managing

Predictors of adalimumab dose escalation in patients with crohnʼs disease at a tertiary referral center Hannah Turner A pproximately 1.5 million people in North America suffer from inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), of which 650,000 have Crohn's disease (CD). 1 In 1998 the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved the first biologic agent for. [en] Background: Adalimumab (ADM) has been shown efficacious in ulcerative colitis (UC). In randomized controlled trials, dose escalation from 40 mg ADM every other week to 40 mg every week was required in 20%-25% of patients within 1 year. Real-life data suggest higher escalation rates. Attempts for dose de-escalation have not been studied yet

Infliximab Dose Escalation Letter ()

Multivariate predictors for dose escalation were the following: prior anti-TNF use (pCONCLUSION:In this study real life nationwide cohort of Crohn's patients treated with adalimumab dose escalation was needed in 34% and was successful in 67%. Dose de-escalation was attempted in 54% and was successful in 63% examining adalimumab dose escalation in CD, 21% of patients required dose escalation to improve responses.13 In patients receiving dose intensifica-tion, 71% regained response and 37% achieved remission.13 In the CHARM study, 63% of the patients who increased to adalimumab 40mg weekly achieved remission after dose escalation.1 Conclusions: This case report provides valuable insight into the efficacy and tolerability of ustekinumab in a patient with severe psoriasis when adalimumab dose escalation fails. To our knowledge this is the first case published to date that describes the clinical efficacy of ustekinumab when adalimumab intensification dose escalation fails

Video: Dosing for Crohn's Disease and Ulcerative Colitis - Humir

Dose escalation of adalimumab was associated with the highest costs, followed by infliximab, then etanercept. The rationale behind dose escalation comes from evidence suggesting that baseline disease activity is higher among rheumatoid arthritis patients undergoing dose escalation. However, dose escalation is only minimally effective and may. Successful treatment of oral Crohn's disease by anti-TNF-alpha dose escalation - a case report. Arne Bokemeyer 1 na1, Nicolas Tentrop 2 na1, Peter J. Barth 3, Frank Lenze 1, Karin Hengst 1, Johannes Kleinheinz 2 & Dominik Bettenworth 1 BMC Gastroenterology volume 18, Article number: 88 (2018) Cite this articl Loss of Response and Need for Adalimumab Dose Intensification in Crohn's Disease: A Systematic Review in J Am Gastroenterol (2011) Predictors for loss of response or dose escalation were male gender, current/former smoker status, family history of inflammatory bowel disease, isolated colonic disease, extra-intestinal manifestations, 80/40 mg induction therapy, longer disease duration. 1 Guidance. 1.1 Infliximab, adalimumab and golimumab are recommended, within their marketing authorisations, as options for treating moderately to severely active ulcerative colitis in adults whose disease has responded inadequately to conventional therapy including corticosteroids and mercaptopurine or azathioprine, or who cannot tolerate, or have medical contraindications for, such therapies Approval of Humira dose escalation to 40 mg weekly will require documentation of partial response to every other week dosing. See next column. Ankylosing spondylitis: CIMZIA Initial dose: 400 mg SC initially and at Weeks 2 and

Dose de-escalation was measured over 12 and 18 months and was defined as a decrease in initiating dose or a reduction in dosing frequency. The time to first dose escalation of the index anti-TNF was measured. The magnitude of dose escalation was calculated as the percent change from baseline dose to dose at first escalation adalimumab dose increases beyond labeling may be occurring.4 A 2012 analysis of managed care commercial claim data from 2005 to 2009 reported dose escalation occurring in 0.8-1.5 percent of etanercept utilizers compared to 10.8-12.5 percent of adalimumab utilizers.4 • Beginning July 2011, Prime Therapeutics (Prime outcome of adalimumab therapy, including safety, in a consecutive series of 168 patients with CD who discon-tinued infliximab therapy because of loss of response or intolerance; (2) to evaluate the influence of adalimumab trough serum concentration on clinical response, ada-limumab dose escalation, and discontinuation of ther

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Effectiveness was analyzed after 12 and 24 weeks using PASI50, PASI75, and mean differences in PASI. Results: Forty-seven treatment episodes (TE) of adalimumab dose escalations, 11 of MTX addition and six combinations were analyzed. After a first episode of adalimumab dose escalation, 25% and 35% achieved PASI50 after 12 and 24 weeks, respectively Maidenhead, UK, 1 st December 2018 - AbbVie a global research and development-based biopharmaceutical company, today announced the launch of HUMIRA ® (adalimumab) 80 mg/0.8 mL. The presentation is designed as an alternative option for therapy induction for approved indications (Ps, CD, HS and Uveitis, and paed CD , HS and uveitis) and convenient dosing for patients that require a dose. • The observed increase in adalimumab trough levels, following dose escalation, was similar in both responders and nonresponders. For patients who did not recapture response, the mean change in adalimumab trough concentration from baseline to Week 12 was not statistically significantly associated with non-recapture of response In a recent article published in AP&T, Bultman et al . report on the predictors of dose escalation in patients with Crohn's disease treated with adalimumab. Clinical trials with adalimumab and infliximab in luminal Crohn's disease have shown a comparable loss of response over time, with need for dose optimization. Adalimumab entered clinical practice in Crohn's disease 7 years after infliximab.