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Tuberculous pleurisy Classification

Tuberculous pleuritis is generally unilateral. It may be associated with acute or recurrent pleuritic pain. Most patients with pleuritis have low-grade systemic symptoms, but it is not unusual for a patient to have an acute febrile toxic illness, and some patients are asymptomatic Diagnostic Standards and Classification of Tuberculosis in Adults and Children T HIS O FFICIAL S TATEMENT OF THE A MERICAN T HORACIC S OCIETY AND THE C ENTERS FOR D ISEASE C ONTROL AND P REVENTION WAS A DOPTED BY THE ATS B OARD OF D IRECTORS, J ULY 1999. T HIS S TATEMENT WAS ENDORSED BY THE C OUNCIL OF THE I NFECTIOUS D ISEASE S OCIETY OF A.

Unconfirmed pulmonary tuberculosis (A16) and tuberculous pleurisy (A16.5) amounted to 28.5%. Liver biopsy and positive sputum cultures for mycobacterias mostly confirmed tuberculosis diagnosis in miliary tuberculosis cases. From all tuberculous pleurisy cases in 65% the diagnosis was confirmed by bacteriology and/or histology. PMID: 1255216 TB is clinically classified by signs and symptoms: -Lung: In this section tuberculous pneumonia and Tuberculous Pleurisy are included. 1. Tuberculous Pneumonia: This can be a primary infection or reactivation, although the primary infection is usually studied with few symptoms. Primary infection is characterized by the formation of the complex primary Ghon (regional adenitis like parahiliar. A15.6 is a billable diagnosis code used to specify a medical diagnosis of tuberculous pleurisy. The code A15.6 is valid during the fiscal year 2021 from October 01, 2020 through September 30, 2021 for the submission of HIPAA-covered transactions Excludes: respiratory tuberculosis, unspecified (011.9) 012.0 Tuberculous pleurisy Tuberculosis of pleura Tuberculous empyema Tuberculous hydrothorax Excludes: pleurisy with effusion without mention of cause (511.9) tuberculous pleurisy in primary progressive tuberculosis (010.1) 012.1 Tuberculosis of intrathoracic lymph node In the United States, pleural tuberculosis accounts for about 5 percent of all tuberculosis cases.19 Tuberculous effusions can follow early postprimary, chronic pulmonary, or miliary tuberculosis.

Diagnostic Standards and Classification of Tuberculosi

As the causes of tuberculous pleurisy are mycobacteria. Today, there are 74 species that are common in earth among animals, humans and even water. In humans, the development of tuberculosis is only one species - M. Tuberculosis. The main feature of this type is that it manifests itself only in pathogenicity virulence CLINICAL CLASSIFICATION OF TUBECULOSIS 1. CLINICAL CLASSIFICATION OF TUBECULOSIS By: Manish Singh 2. TUBERCULOSIS: INTRODUCTION Tuberculosis (TB), is one of the oldest diseases known to affect humans and is likely to have existed in prehominids, is a major cause of death worldwide. This disease is caused by bacteria of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex and usually affects the lungs.

The classification of pulmonary tuberculosis is based on clinical and radiologic factors (Table 1) (6). Active disease may manifest with symptoms that are only minimal initially but then develop during the course of several months (7) Tuberculous pleural effusion is the second most common form of extrapulmonary tuberculosis (after lymphatic involvement) and is the most common cause of pleural effusion in areas where tuberculosis is endemic [ 1-5 ]. Tuberculous pleural effusion is synonymous with the term tuberculous pleurisy Objective: To improve physicians' ability to discriminate tuberculous from malignant pleural effusions through a simple clinical algorithm that avoids pleural biopsy. Design: We retrospectively compared the clinical and pleural fluid features of 238 adults with pleural effusion who satisfied diagnostic criteria for tuberculosis (n=64) or malignancy (n=174) at one academic center (derivation. ICD-10-CM Code for Tuberculous pleurisy A15.6 ICD-10 code A15.6 for Tuberculous pleurisy is a medical classification as listed by WHO under the range - Certain infectious and parasitic diseases. Subscribe to Codify and get the code details in a flash. Request a Demo 14 Day Free Trial Buy No Pleurisy, also known as pleuritis, is inflammation of the membranes that surround the lungs and line the chest cavity (). This can result in a sharp chest pain while breathing. Occasionally the pain may be a constant dull ache. Other symptoms may include shortness of breath, cough, fever or weight loss, depending on the underlying cause.. The most common cause is a viral infection

[Variability and diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis]

1 Deaths with underlying cause coded as J65 (Pneumoconiosis associated with tuberculosis) or J92.0 (Pleural plaque with presence of asbestos) are included in the underlying cause-of-death tabulation for this condition if the specific ICD-10 code for this condition is listed on the entity axis AIMS: Tuberculous pleurisy is an important cause of pleural effusions in areas with a high incidence of tuberculosis. In this study, we developed an IS1081-based LAMP for the detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex and investigated its usefulness in the diagnosis of tuberculous pleurisy CDC classification of tuberculin reaction An induration (palpable raised hardened area of skin) of more than 5-15 mm (depending upon the person's risk factors) to 10 Mantoux units is considered a positive result, indicating TB infection. 5 mm or more is positive i

Frontiers | Diagnostic Value of Pleural Effusion

Currently, the International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems is being applied to the tenth revision (WHO, 1995). Block tuberculosis (A15-A19) is included in the class Some infectious and parasitic diseases (A00-B99). A15-A16 Tuberculosis of the respiratory system Tuberculous pleurisy including dry tuberculous pleurisy, exudative tuberculous pleurisy, and tuberculous empyema Many patients experience pleural pain and sometimes accompanying fever, cough, fatigue, and anorexia. Shortness of breath after activities is associated with the quantity of pleural effusion A pleural fluid ADA level greater than 40 U per L (667 nkat per L) has a sensitivity of 90 to 100 percent and a specificity of 85 to 95 percent for the diagnosis of tuberculous pleurisy.3, 5, 26.

Classification of Tuberculosi

  1. Pleural effusions, tuberculous empyema and obliterative fibrous pleuritis are common complications of progressive disease. 3. Endobronchial, endotracheal and laryngeal tuberculosis: Organisms spread to these sites and cause microscopic granulomatous lesions in the mucous membranes of these sites. 4. Systemic Miliary Tuberculosis
  2. Background: Tuberculous pleurisy is inflammation caused by direct infection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) and/or delayed allergic reaction of the pleura to MTB thallus components. The diagnosis of tuberculous pleurisy is mainly confirmed by bacterial culture, smear staining or histopathology, but has some clinical limitations
  3. Pleural TB may occur from either primary diseases reactivation of a latent infection. Pleural effusion is caused in the pleural space by the bacteria which trigger an inflammatory reaction and a pleural exudate of protein-rich fluid
  4. Background: Tuberculous pleurisy (TBP) is a common clinical type of tuberculosis (TB) in China. TBP is difficult to diagnose. Whether the mononuclear cell/leukocyte (MNC/LEU) ratio in pleural effusion can contribute to accurate TBP diagnosis remains yet unclear.Objective: To explore the diagnostic value of MNC/LEU ratio in pleural effusion for TBP in China.Methods: This study was a.
  5. The classification tree identified the following predictors of tuberculous pleurisy in order of importance: age < 35 years, pleural fluid ADA > 38 U/L, presence of fever and pleural fluid LDH > 320 U/L. In the derivation set group, the tree had a sensitivity of 92.2% (95% CI, 85.6-98.8%), a specificity of 98.3% (95%CI, 96.3-100%), and an.
  6. classification, such as the pathologic-anatomic form and clinical status of the disease. However, it has become apparent that this classification needs revision because it cannot comprehend certain types of pulmonary tuberculosis and give information as to rela­ tive infectivity. To meet the urgent demand for a universally acceptable syste

Tuberculous pleurisy in primary progressive tuberculosis (010.1) Other primary progressive tuberculosis (010.8) Unspecified (010.9) Pulmonary tuberculosis (011) Tuberculosis of lung, infiltrative (011.0) Tuberculosis of lung, nodular (011.1) Tuberculosis of lung with cavitation (011.2) Tuberculosis of bronchus (011.3 A series of 59 cases of exudative pleurisy is presented. The aetiology of the pleurisy was tuberculosis in 46 cases, pleural carcinosis in 3 cases, pleuropneumonia in 3 cases, and an unknown aetiology in 7 cases. A pleural biopsy and bacteriological and cytological examinations of the pleural exudate had been performed in all the cases. Further examinations were the serological reactions for..

(PDF) Discriminating Tuberculous Pleural Effusion from

2021 ICD-10-CM Code A15

  1. From 1980-1991 82 (7·2%) of 1134 tuberculosis notifications in Edinburgh were for pleural effusion. Study of the available records of 62 cases satisfying defined diagnostic criteria identified 14 cases (6 M, 8 F) with a mean age of 27·6 years (range 11-51 years) of primary tuberculous effusion and 25 cases (21 M, 4 F) with a mean age of 51 years (range 19-79 years) with pleural.
  2. Despite the aggressive public health strategy and effective treatments against tuberculosis (TB), it remains a major infectious cause of death worldwide, with 9 million new cases and nearly 2 million deaths annually. 1 Tuberculous pleural effusion is a common manifestation of extra-pulmonary TB and is the leading cause of pleural effusion in some geographical areas. 2 -5 The incidence of TB.
  3. ate test result must be documented as indeter
  4. Tuberculous peritonitis is commonly classified as follows: wet type. most common (~90%) 1. . dry type. fibrotic-fixed type. Of note, there is considerable overlap between the three types. Tuberculosis in different organ systems may mimic alternate pathology so histopathological or laboratory evidence is often required to support suspicions on.

Extrapulmonary Tuberculosis: An Overview - American Family

Diagnostic classification. The diagnostic classification of TB in Canada is based upon the International Classification of Diseases, 9th and 10th Editions. Footnote 7, Footnote 8 For each case of TB, up to five individual diagnoses can be captured for reporting purposes. The main diagnostic sites are divided into the following two broad categories: respiratory and non-respiratory Pleural effusion - Presence of a significant amount of fluid within the pleural space. This finding must be distinguished from blunting of the costophrenic angle, which may or may not represent a small amount of fluid within the pleural space (except in children when even minor blunting must be considered a finding that can suggest active TB) confirmed tuberculosis pleurisy. Tb diagnosis was confirmed by chest radiograph (presence of pleural fluid), Ziehl-Neelsen staining, mycobacteria culture and positive histopathology for granulomas with caseous necrosis. By histopathological analysis, we established some classification criteria for tissue sections according to th

Pleural effusion is one of the common complications of pulmonary tuberculosis. In this study, the clinical features, the positivity rate of microbiological procedures and blind pleural biopsies, radiological manifestations, biochemical and hematological profiles of serum and pleural fluid were analyzed. Objectives: To report our experience of. Pleural effusion is a relatively common finding in patients with non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, occurring in up to 20% of cases ; the rate of positive cytological findings varies widely (22.2-94.1%) . Tuberculous pleurisy accounts for 25% of all pleural effusions . Definitive diagnosis of tuberculous pleurisy relies on PCR, or culture of tubercle. tuberculosis Pleurisy (with effusion) (exudative) (serous) (serofibrinous): pneumococcal staphylococcal streptococcal other specified nontuberculous bacterial cause 511.8 Other specified forms of effusion, except tuberculous Encysted pleurisy Hydropneumothorax Hemopneumothorax Hydrothorax Hemothora

Tuberculous pleurisy: causes, symptoms and treatmen

Clinical Classification of Tubeculosi

Background: The diagnostic value of pleural effusion mononuclear cells count for tuberculous pleurisy (TBP) is unclear. We aimed to evaluate the diagnostic value of pleural effusion mononuclear cells count and its combination with adenosine deaminase (ADA) in TBP patients.Methods: We initially analyzed 296 patients with unknown pleural effusion from the Department of Respiratory Medicine at. Tuberculosis of larynx, trachea and bronchus, without mention of bacteriological or histological con A16.5 Tuberculous pleurisy, without mention of bacteriological or histological confirmatio Pleural TB and peripheral tuberculous lymphadenitis are the two most common forms of extra-pulmonary TB, 27 and both are commonly seen in patients with pericardial TB. In one series, 50% of patients with tuberculous pericarditis had necropsy evidence of tuberculous pleuritis, 28 and peripheral lymphadenopathy affecting the cervical glands has.

03 1 Classification Engl 2014 - View presentation slides online. thanks you guys are the bes Tuberculous pleural effusion develops from a delayed hypersensitivity reaction to mycobacteria in the pleural space following rupture of a subpleural caseous focus. 64 The frequency of pleural effusion as a manifestation of tuberculosis varies worldwide, from 5% of tuberculosis cases in the USA, 65 to 23% of cases in Spain, 66 and 31% of cases. The most affected organ by tuberculosis is the lung. Pulmonary tuberculosis is classified in primary and secondary. Secondary tuberculosis. About 90 - 95 % of cases with secondary tuberculosis in adults occur by the reactivation of the latent primary infection, the other cases resulting from reinfection with Mycobacterium tuberculosi s Pleural effusion, which is a commonly observed clinical manifestation, is associated with more than 50 recognized diseases and disorders. In most parts of world, subtypes of exudative effusions often seen in clinical practice include tuberculous pleural effusion (TPE), parapneumonic effusion (PPE), and malignant pleural effusion (MPE) [1, 2].It is crucially important to differentiate TPE and. Pleural tuberculosis. When M tubereculosis penetrates the pleura, it re­sults in pleural tuberculosis. Tuberculous pleural effusion accounts for approximately 5 percent of all disease due to Mycobacterium tuberculosis; Pulmonary TB produces chronic cough, sputum production, fevers, sweats, and weight loss

Pulmonary tuberculosis disease (TB) is a contagious bacterial infection that usually attacks the lungs. TB mainly affects the lungs. However, it affects any part of the body including the lymph node (Small glands), bones, digestive system, and nervous systems. It is called extrapulmonary tuberculosis disease (ETB). Pulmonary tuberculosis symptoms Background . An initial step in the evaluation of patients with pleural effusion syndrome (PES) is to determine whether the pleural fluid is a transudate or an exudate. Objectives . To investigate total adenosine deaminase (ADA) as a biomarker to classify pleural transudates and exudates. Methods . An assay of total ADA in pleural fluids (P-ADA) was observed using a commercial kit in a.

Pulmonary Tuberculosis: Role of Radiology in Diagnosis and

Pleural effusion is a common complication of various diseases. Conventional methods are not always capable of establishing the cause of pleural effusion, so alternative tests are needed. The aim of this study was to explore means of discriminating between different pleural effusion groups, malignant, parapneumonic and tuberculous, based on the combined function of seven biological markers Work-Related Lung Disease (WoRLD) Surveillance System. * A small number of deaths with underlying cause equal to ICD-10 code J65 or J92.0 are included in underlying cause of death tabulations. See methods for more detailed explanation. ** In this report, mesothelioma of the pericardium is grouped into mesothelioma of other sites A 28-year-old rheumatoid arthritis woman treated with adalimumab was admitted with fever, cough, and right chest pain. X-ray showed right pleural effusion. By medical thoracoscopy, diffuse white nodules were observed, and biopsy specimen demonstrated epithelioid cell granulomas with necrosis and auramine-stained organisms, which suggested a diagnosis of tuberculous pleurisy. Medical. Pleural Tuberculosis. Pleura are the coverings of the lungs. There are two layers of the pleura, called the parietal layer and visceral layer.The visceral layer is closely applied to the lung. Abstract: Pleural tuberculosis and lymph node involvement are the most common extrapulmonary manifestations of tuberculosis. Most patients with pleural involvement complain of pleuritic chest pain, nonproductive cough, and dyspnea. The pleural effusion is usually unilateral and small to moderate in size. The diagnosis depends on the demonstration of acid-fast bacilli in pleural fluid or biopsy.

Tuberculous pleural effusion - UpToDat

  1. MPE 21, 23: find malignant cells in PE and/or on closed pleural biopsy specimen.(In our study, all the MPEs are secondary to metastases to the pleura from lung). The malignant and tuberculous pleurisy groups were confirmed pathologic diagnosis based on pleural biopsy or thoracoscopy, which was established by two different pathologists at least. The patients enrolled are all verified through.
  2. Tuberculosis Dr. Betulio Chacín Almarza Neumonólogo - Tisiólogo . We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads
  3. In post-tuberculous empyema the empyema developed during or after anti tuberculous therapy with a mean duration of 50.3 days (range 0-720 days). All 11 patients with tuberculous empyema and 10 out of 15 post-tuberculous empyema showed positive AFB and culture for TB from the pleural aspirate, 100 and 66.6%, respectively, giving a total of 81%
  4. A review of the records for all cases of tuberculous pleurisy notified in Canada from 1970 through 1974 and in British Columbia from 1967 through 1976 showed that in the periods studied the annual incidence of this condition was low, just under nine cases per million population, and was declining. The disease commonly occurred a few months after a primary infection with tubercle bacilli...

Extrapulmonary tuberculosis is defined according to WHO classification criteria as an infection by M.tuberculosis which affects tissues and organs outside the pulmonary parenchyma. It represents between 20 and 25% of all TB cases1. Extrapulmonary TB (EPTB) results from the hematogenous and lymphatic spread of M.tuberculosis bacilli Immunological studies of pleural fluid in TB-pleurisy focus on the measurement and analysis of chemokins and interleukins that are characteristically associated with the tuberculous immune response. TNFα and IFNγ revealed at a cut-off 140 pg/ml a sensitivity of 94 % and a specificity of 85 % [ 58 , 60 ] The Siltzbach classification system defines the following five stages of sarcoidosis: including tuberculosis, berylliosis, leprosy, hypersensitivity pneumonitis, Crohn disease, primary biliary cirrhosis, and fungal disease. Moreover, Manifestations of pleural involvement include exudative or transudative pleural effusion,. overwhelming tuberculosis, tuberculous pleurisy), fungal infections (South American blastomycosis), drugs (corticosteroids and other immunosuppressive agents), metabolic derangements (chronic rena Secondly, lymph node tuberculosis was the commonest type of EPTB accounting for 58.7% of cases in the age group of 0-14 years. Lymph node and pleural TB were the common EPTB cases in the age group of 15-44 years. But, pleural TB was the commonest type of presentation in the age group of 45-64 years as well as in the age group of > 65 years

A decision tree for differentiating tuberculous from

Other less common causes of pleural effusion include: Tuberculosis. Autoimmune disease. Bleeding (due to chest trauma) Chylothorax (due to trauma) Rare chest and abdominal infections. Asbestos pleural effusion (due to exposure to asbestos) Meig's syndrome (due to a benign ovarian tumor) Ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome A pleural effusion describes an excess of fluid in the pleural cavity, usually resulting from an imbalance in the normal rate of pleural fluid production or absorption, or both. Pleural effusions are common, with an estimated 1-1.5 mil - lion new cases in the United States and 200 000-250 000 in the United Kingdom each year. 1 This review describe

Tuberculosis is an infectious disease that most commonly affects the lungs (pulmonary) but can also affect other organs (nonpulmonary). Tuberculosis is caused by an air-borne bacteria, and since Tuberculosis can affect so many different parts of the body, each case of Tuberculosis can cause very different symptoms The TB skin test, also known as the Mantoux tuberculin skin test, is the most common way doctors diagnose tuberculosis. They'll inject a tiny amount of fluid called tuberculin just below the.

ICD-10 Code for Tuberculous pleurisy- A15

Introduction. Tuberculosis (TB) continues to pose a major threat to global health , and research is a key component of the Global Plan to Stop TB2011-2015 .Research is particularly critical for developing new tools and approaches needed for eliminating TB by 2050 .Recognizing this, the Stop TB Partnership and the World Health Organization's (WHO) Stop TB Department have launched the TB. Classification of breast tuberculosis: Breast tuberculosis was first classified into five different types by Mckeown and Wilkinson21: (i) Nodular tubercular mastitis, (ii) Disseminated or.

Pleurisy - Wikipedi

Tuberculosis (TB) is an airborne infectious disease caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis and is a major cause of morbidity and mortality, particularly in developing countries [1-3].In 2005, 8.8 million people developed active TB and 1.6 million died of the disease [].Most cases occur in Southeast Asia and Africa Pleural fluid analysis yields important diagnostic information in pleural effusions in combination with clinical history, examination, and radiology. For more than 30 years, the initial and most pragmatic step in this process is to determine whether the fluid is a transudate or an exudate. Light's criteria remain the most robust in separating the transudate-exudate classification which.

Classification of Pulmonary Tuberculosis with Five Digit

  1. Pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) is a contagious, infectious disease that attacks your lungs. People with the germ have a 10 percent lifetime risk of getting sick with TB. When you start showing.
  2. ation to the regional lymph nodes. In persons who develop TBM, bacilli seed to the meninges or brain parenchyma, resulting in the formation of small.
  3. Our objective was to evaluate the efficacy of a standardised work-up in the diagnosis of pleural tuberculosis (TB) that included fibreoptic bronchoscopy and medical thoracoscopy. A consecutive series of 52 pleural TB patients observed during the period 2001-2015 was evaluated retrospectively. 20 females, mean (range) age 39.7 (18-74) years, and 32 males, mean (range) age 45.75 (21-83.
  4. Tuberculous Pleural Effusion. Tuberculosis (TB) is a major public health problem, and its prevalence in Spain is 30/100 000 inhabitants. Pleural tuberculosis (PTB) represents 4%-10% of all TB cases and 10%-15% of large series of PE confirmed by thoracentesis in Spain
  5. A striking finding was the significantly higher proportion of PPDspecific IFN-c+TNF-a+ cell population (PPD-IGTA) in the pleural fluid compared to peripheral blood of TB subjects. Presence of this pleural PPD-IGTA population resulted in 95 % correct classification of pleural TB disease with a sensitivity of 95 % and specificity of 100%
  6. e the demographics of patients with extrapulmonary tuberculosis in Germany. Data on 26,302 tuberculosis cases from a national survey carried out during the period 1996-2000 were analysed. The crude proportion of tuberculosis patients with extrapulmonary manifestations was 21.6%. Extrapulmonary tuberculosis was most likely among females, children.
  7. Pleurisy is inflammation of the double layered membrane that surrounds the lungs. Pleurisy itself is not contagious, but some underlying diseases or conditions may cause pleurisy to be contagious (for example TB, bacterial pneumonia, and the flu). Underlying causes that are not contagious include heart attack, rheumatoid arthritis, and others

ICD-9 Code 012.02 - Tuberculous pleurisy, bacteriological ..

  1. Classification of Mycobacteria: Mycobacterium tuberculosis. M. tuberculosis was first isolated by Robert Koch on 24 th March, 1882. It is the causative agent of tuberculosis in Human. General Morphology of M. tuberculosis: Dry pleurisy or pleural effusion, lung collapse, acute miliary TB and occasisonally tuberculosis meningitis..
  2. ICD-10-CM (International Classification of Diseases, 10th Revision, Clinical Modification) is a medical coding system for classifying diagnoses and reasons for visits in U.S. health care settings. The data has been updated to include the following two new codes per CDC announcements : U07.0, Vaping-related disorder and U07.1, COVID-19
  3. Pleural fluid from tuberculous pleurisy inhibits the functions of T cells and the differentiation of Th1 cells via immunosuppressive factors. Q Li, L Li, Y Liu, X Fu, D Qiao, H Wang, S Lao, F Huang, C Wu. Cellular & molecular immunology 8 (2), 172-180
TuberculosisPhimaimedicine: 712Figure1Frontiers | Diagnostic Accuracy of Pleural EffusionPPT - Occupational Exposure to Tuberculosis PowerPointTb slides

During classification of a new image, a Gradient-weighted Class Activation Map(Grad-CAM) is generated for the image and the feature with the lowest L2 distance with the Grad- CAM is retrieved from the atlas to justify the prediction of the network. Fig.1 System overview. An illustration of the explainable TB detection and classification Tuberculosis (TB) is an airborne infection that mainly attacks the lung parenchyma. In some cases, it might also travel to the Meninges, Kidneys, Bones and Lymph Nodes. If you research TB, you will notice that it is flagged as an International Public Health Issue, linked to poor standards of living.In fact, TB is most common in places where there is poverty, limited nutrition, overpopulation. A promising method for TPE diagnosis using only clinical signs, blood samples and PE samples is proposed;The full potential of SVM was explored with the aid of moth flame optimization;The most rele.. Introduction. Tuberculosis (TB) is a major global health burden, developing in an estimated 9.6 million patients and contributing to 1.5 million deaths annually [].In areas with high TB prevalence, pleural TB is the most common form of extrapulmonary TB and the main cause of pleural effusion [2-4].The gold standard of pleural TB diagnosis requires detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB.