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Rotary instruments in endodontics Pdf

[Pdf] Design Features of Rotary Instruments in Endodontics

endodontic rotary instruments, in order to avoid, or at least reduce, their intracanal separation. Despite the introduction of imaging methods increasingly suitable for the analysis of the endodontic anatomy, this is still very challenging, and often leads to iatrogenic errors memory. Its high flexibility is critical for rotary endodontic files for two reasons. With highly elastic instruments, forces between the file and the canal wall during instrumentation are reduced. This results in the file remaining centered in the root canal space, and in a lower propensity towards canal straightenin Endodontic rotary nickel-titanium instrument system s Lieutenant Brent J. Crumpton, DC, USN and Captain Scott McClanahan, DC, USN The purpose of this clinical update is to bring clinicians up to date with three current and popular endodontic rotary nickel-titanium instrument systems. Backgroun At this stage of endodontic development, common to all instrumentation techniques is the use of endodontic files.Although not uni-versally used, rotary instrumentation is gain-ing universal interest. The purpose of this book is to provide information gained from extensive research to facilitate the most effi-cient use of rotary instruments.

a rotary file with a non-cutting tip. Cutting tips on rotary files make them too aggressive. Yes, a cutting tip has the ability to enter narrow, somewhat calcified canals, but we have two serious concerns with a cutting tip. The first is if you accidentally go long February 2002 ORAL HEALTH 39 Real World Endo: Design Features of Rotary Files an The last decade has been witness to phenomenal growth in endodontic technology. The introduction of these new technologies has resulted in endodontics becoming easier, faster and most importantly, better. Principal among these is Nickel Titanium (NiTi) rotary instrumentation that results in consistent, predictable, and reproducible shaping. The purpose of this article is to review the design. the rotary NiTi instruments is of value to the clinician. The pur-pose of this paper is to discuss the behavioral properties of NiTi, importance of sped and torque, and the necessity for its understanding for effective, safe, and successful treatment. Keywords: Endodontic instruments, NiTi instruments, Speed, Torque

(PDF) Fatigue in rotary endodontic instruments -A review

[PDF] ENDODONTIC ROTARY SYSTEMS - A REVIEW Semantic Schola

shaping using NiTi instruments can be applied to primary teeth. Rotary instruments were introduced to pediatric endodontics by Barr., et al. in 2000 [7]. Manual stainless steel files provide excellent tactile control and sharp, long-lasting cutting surfaces. However, due to th The instruments were bench-dried overnight and 22 International Endodontic Journal, 37, 19^28, 2004 ß 2004 Blackwell Publishing Ltd Linsuwanont et al. Cleaning of rotary NiTi instruments were then transferred to the brushing stand, and sub- Data analysis jected to the complete cleaning sequence outlined above

(PDF) Cleaning Of Rotary Nickel-Titanium Endodontic

  1. Proceed with crown-down sequence 6. Replace rotary instruments frequently American Association of Endodontists 2008 31. 31 Types of Rotary Endodontic Instruments American Association of Endodontists 2008 Group I - Passive preparation Group II- Active cutting Group III- Unique designs that do not fit in either group I or group II. 32
  2. rotary endodontic instruments.5 Strategies in the alteration of NiTi alloy In recent years, new forms of NiTi have been developed by modifying the alloy either by correcting the surface defects or variations in metal processing and file manufacturing
  3. ENDODONTICS: NiTi Rotary Instruments Concepts for Preparing the Root Canal System November 1, 2001 by Clifford J. Ruddle, DDS, FICD, FACD The purpose of the Ruddle on Rotary series of articles is to provide useful information that will enable dentists to predictably shape root canals for three-dimensional obturation
  4. Rotary Instruments in Operative Dentistry - Dr. Nithin Mathew 29 30. • Harder than steel, so does not dull rapidly. • Carbide is more brittle and more susceptible to fracture when subjected to sudden blow. • Most carbide heads are welded or brazed to a steel shank and neck. Rotary Instruments in Operative Dentistry - Dr. Nithin Mathew 3
  5. In the last two decades, the evolution of manual and mechanized instruments has contributed to improve the success and predictability of the endodontic treatment [1-4]. The purpose of this literature review article is to emphasize concepts and highlight positive and vulnerable aspects in the evolution of endodontic instruments
  6. ENDO 2007;1(3):189-203 REVIEW 189 In the last decade, rotary nickel-titanium (NiTi) instruments have become increasingly popular for preparing root canals. Therefore, the aim of the present article is to review the literature on in vitro evaluation of rotary root canal instruments. The focus is on studies of shaping and cleaning ability
  7. Endodontic Rotary Instruments - Free download as Powerpoint Presentation (.ppt / .pptx), PDF File (.pdf), Text File (.txt) or view presentation slides online. All types of Rotary instruments concerned with Endodontic treatment

endodontic instruments during root canal preparation. Nickel-titanium engine-driven rotary instruments are more prone to fracture than stainless steel hand NiTi rotary instrument separation was 2.2% according to the number of teeth (11306), and 1.0% according to the number of root canals (24108)[6]. In another 1-yea Purpose: To systematically review all studies comparing manual instrumentation with at least one rotary instrument in the preparation of the root canal of permanent human teeth. Methods: The electronic databases PubMed, EMBASE, LILACS, IBECS and BBO were searched. In vitro studies published until 27 of September, 2016 were included. For statistical analysis, we used the Comprehensive Meta. smaller load, is an important property of Ni-Ti rotary instruments, because it is a decisive factor for the mechanical behavior and performance of endodontic instruments while shaping curved canals6). Moreover, the flexibility of endodontic instruments influences the outcome of torsional and cyclic fatigue properties6,7) After the introduction of NiTi endodontic hand instruments by Walia et al. , many rotary NiTi instruments have been marketed. Recently, a new type of rotary motion, asymmetrical rotary motion, has been introduced (Diemer et al. 2013). Asymmetrical rotary motion (waves of motion travelling along the active part of the file) is produced by design.

Rotary in endodontic - SlideShar

Vortex™ Rotary Instruments Endo Instrument Sterilization: Files must be sterilized before use. ANSI/ADA Specification 28 recommends: • Scrub the instruments with soap and warm water. • Rinse thoroughly with distilled or deionized water. • Allow to air dry. • Place the instruments, unwrapped, in the autoclave tray Types of Rotary Endodontic Instruments. Are you victim of marketing, Struggling/aspiring to Do Good/great Endo-CLICK HEREEven untreated case Heals -see pic below, tooth with vital pulp in apical area also will recover more easily, but as a professional you are resonsible to give all patients best chance to HEAL- by doing a complete cleaning..with focus in apical are The use of Ni-Ti represented a turning point in the history of Endodontics, in fact it allowed the construction and production of new manual and rotary endodontic instruments with characteristics that were superior to stainless steel instruments, obtaining more effective and reproducible therapies.31, 32 The Ni-Ti alloys used in dentistry have. The aim is to investigate the premature catastrophic fracture produced for different periods during clinical endodontic treatment of two brands of NiTi endodontic rotary instruments. 3 samples as-received, 6 samples used with patients for 2 and 7 h and 5 samples fractured were studied for each brand of endodontic NiTi rotary instruments. Transformation temperatures (Ms, Mf, As and Af) and. Rotary vs. Reciprocal Endodontics Both rotary and reciprocal systems for root canal debridement are popular and successful (see Clinicians Report, May 2011). Each technology has advantages and limitations supported by the observation that some companies provide both types of instruments

ENDODONTICS: NiTi Rotary Instruments Concepts for

instruments designs [7]. This with the super-elasticity property are almost the main reasons for using the NiTi alloy widely in manufacturing endodontic instruments; especially rotary instruments (RIs). Many studies have reported better performance of NiTi-RIs, in cleaning and shaping of the root-canal sys-tem, compared to SSIs [6, 8-10] Key Words: endodontic instruments, surface finishing, scanning electron microscopy, manufacturing defects. INTRODUCTION Cleaning, disinfecting and shaping of the root canals are performed using endodontic instruments and adjuvant chemical irrigants. With the advent of engine-driven instruments, mainly rotary files, the sequence o A. Brotzu et alii, Frattura ed Integrità Strutturale, 28 (2014) 19-31; DOI: 10.3221/IGF-ESIS.28.03 20 INTRODUCTION n the practice of endodontics the introduction of Ni-Ti rotary instruments has reformed root canal treatment b the incidence of instrument fracture. 38 The use of small hand files to confirm patency of the canal and to ensure sufficient space for rotary instruments to passively follow would greatly improve the safety of rotary NiTi instrument use. 39 Teeth requiring endodontic therapy may have intra-canal calcifications (denticles) that hav

Rotary Instruments in Operative Dentistr

Depending upon the frequency of rotary instruments usage in a week for endodontic procedure, 31 (32%) endodontists has used it only once in a week .The highest frequency of rotary instruments usage was found to be three times in a week by 53 endodontists (54.7%) . while about 11 (11.3%) endodontists use rotary instruments five times in a week. Endodontics In this part the basic endodontic instruments necessary for effective root canal treatment are described.. Many dental practitioners find it difficult to resist new gadgets, and there. Retreatment efficacy of different rotary instrument systems e356 Introduction Long term success of endodontic therapy relies on tho-rough debridement of the root canal system followed by three dimensional obturation. Inability to achieve the-se goals results in persistence of intracanal pathogens, eventually leading to treatment failure

Evolution of Instruments in Endodontics-Literature Revie

of NiTi rotary instruments: A systematic review. International Endodontic Journal, 50, 143-152, 2017. The aim of this review was to provide a detailed analy-sis of the literature concerning the correlation between different movement kinematics and the cyclic fatigue resistance of NiTi rotary endodontic instruments. Fro Rotary Cutting Instruments1 - Free download as Powerpoint Presentation (.ppt / .pptx), PDF File (.pdf), Text File (.txt) or view presentation slides online. endodontics ProFile® GT rotary instruments are used in a controlled, slow-speed rotary handpiece, thus providing the reaming action that produces a quicker, centered, tapered preparation, while maintaining good tactile sense. A torque control motor, such as the one included in your system, should be used. Procedures for Using the Aseptico ITR Moto Endodontic rotary instruments made of shape memory alloys in their martensitic state and manufacturing methods Download PDF Info Publication number US20110271529A1 Efficient. Flexible. Brilliant. Meet Vortex Blue rotary files for Endodontic treatments. Learn more here

Endodontic Rotary Instruments Ultrasound Wave

  1. single file Niti-Rotary systems for canal preparation. Keywords: M wire, wave one, reciproc, oneshape, rotary Introduction The cleaning and shaping of root canals is a key step in root canal treatment procedures. This can be achieved using a proper chemo-mechanical preparation [1, 2] and is thus essential for successful endodontic treatment
  2. Journal section: Operative Dentistry and Endodontics Publication Types: Research Differences in cyclic fatigue lifespan between two different heat treated NiTi endodontic rotary instruments: WaveOne Gold vs EdgeOne Fire Gianluca Gambarini, Dario Di Nardo, Massimo Galli, Marco Seracchiani, Orlando Donfrancesco, Luc
  3. employing NiTi rotary instruments. In Brazil, rotary instrument techniques have developed mainly in the past few years, which led to the introduction of this technique in the Endodontic disciplines of the Dentistry graduation courses. This was also an unavoidable evolution because of its high acceptance in the Brazilian market
  4. A new Ni-Ti rotary instrument with a more appropriate length, taper, and tip size for the primary dentition would be advantageous. The K3 Endo Ni-Ti rotary file system was introduced in 2002. These files are designed with a wide radial land, which is meant to make the instrument more resistant to torsional and rotary stresses

2 West J. Endodontic Update 2006. J Esthet Restor Dent. 2006; 18(5): 280-300. Review. 3 Berutti E, Chiandussi G, Gaviglio I, Ibba A. Comparative analysis of torsional and bending stresses in two mathematical models of nickel-titanium rotary instruments: ProTaper versus ProFile. J Endod. 2003 Jan;29(1):15-9 1 K0044 Small Rotary File Kit .04 Taper, 25mm 1 Real World Endo / EndoSequence DVD 1 K0047 Medium Rotary File Kit .04 Taper, 25mm 1 EndoSequence Instructional Info EndoSequence® Hand Instrument Kit Includes: 1 M10 Mirror Handle, Cone Socket 1 260BR6082101 #5 Cone Socket Front Surface Mirror 1 300NL College Forceps, Nonlockin Highlighted by our innovative endodontic rotary files: TF, K3XF, and K3 Files, our Shape line provides a wide variety of tools and methods to safely instrument canals. Whether it be ISO tapers or orifice openers, stainless steel hand files or rotary Niti files, Kerr Endodontics is your quality solutions provider endodontic rotary instrument remains blocked between dentinal walls and its coronal part continues to rotate [7,8]. Over the years, in order to reduce the incidence of intracanal separation due to torsional load, manufacturers have improved the instruments' mechanical features, suc

There are three main instrument sequences being RaCe 123, RaCe Original and BioRaCe plus an extended range of additional instruments both in kits as well as individual sizes: NEW Single Patient Kits The simple technique using only three rotary NiTi files saves both on time and cost and comes as a single patient kit Perfect Endo. is a professional dental clinic instruments supplier with more than 15+ years of experience. As we provide high-quality dental rotary instruments, there are a variety of different dental clinic instruments available. For instance, perfect rotary instruments, reciprocating instruments, hand files, endodontics materials, endodontic devices, dental burs, etc

Endostar Proendo. Endostar Proendo is a wireless system for machine root canal treatment with the torque control function and auto stop reverse designed to work with most systems of rotary nickel-titanium instruments. products from this category » Recent changes in both metallurgy and endodontic concepts have led to the introduction of a wide range of new instruments. An effort has been made here to present the journey of endodontic instruments from the past to the present. Keywords: Files, reamer, recent endodontic instruments, rotary endodontics

HyFlex rotary files are NiTi instruments used for canal enlargement to prepare the root canal for irrigation and obturation in continuous rotation or depending on the clinical situation also in reciprocal motion. The files are available in different sizes and have an ISO color coded handle, indicating the tip size of file and color coded rubber. This study examined used, discarded rotary nickel-titanium instruments obtained from 14 endodontists in four countries, and identified factors that may influence defects produced during clinical use. A total of 7,159 instruments were examined for the presence of defects. Unwinding occurred in 12% of

All endodontic cavity accesses were made under a surgical microscope (D.F. Vasconcellos, Valença, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil). Endodontic preparation. The endodontic preparation was performed by a single operator trained to use this rotary system. Each set of instruments was used for the preparation of five mesiobuccal canals The present invention provides an improved rotary handpiece for cleaning and enlarging the root canal of a tooth with a rotary endodontic file. The handpiece includes a retractable support rod attached to and extending from the handpiece positioned adjacent and substantially parallel to the endodontic file. The support rod is adapted to rest on a tooth whereby the retraction of the support rod. resulted in a new generation of instruments (7). The NiTi ProTaper file system (Dentsply, Maillefer, Ballaigues, Switzerland) is a relatively new endodontic rotary canal preparation technique. The manufacturer claims that these files are specially designed to instrument difficult highly calcified and curved root canals (8). Th Dr. John West explores three critical distinctions of Rotary versus Reciprocation Introduction As a practicing endodontist and a clinical endodontic educator for more than 30 years, the most frequent question I am asked about technique is, Is it predictable? While every dentist wants his/her endodontic treatment to be easier, mor

A comparative study of seven instruments in shaping the root canal in vitro. Int Endod J. 1997;30(2):124-132. O'Connell DT, Brayton SM. Evaluation of root canal preparation with two automated endodontic handpieces. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol. 1975;39(2): 298-303. Parashos P, Messer HH. Rotary NiTi instrument fracture and its consequences The aim of this in vitro pilot study was to describe the shaping ability of a rotary nickel-titanium (NiTi) instrument in combination with different torque-controlled endodontic devices and to compare them with NiTi files in combination with a conventional preparation by hand in severely curved root canals of plastic blocks Endodontic retreatments with NiTi rotary instruments resulted in a higher occurrence of instrument fracture than when using SS hand instruments. Operator In a 5-year retrospective study, the prevalence of fractured instruments was 7.41% for 2180 endodontic cases treated by postgraduate students[ 1 ]

[PDF] DESIGN FEATURES OF ROTARY INSTRUMENTS IN ENDODONTICS

A major concern during endodontic treatment is the potential for broken or separated instruments in difficult canals. Reciprocating files: evidence-based benefits Studies have already shown that the cleaning and shaping of the root canal system is improved and preparation time reduced, when motor-driven instrumentation systems are used, in. Ch.13 Endodontic instruments In 1955, Ingle was the first to express finally the need for standardization of canal instruments. Arnaldo Castellucci.Endodontics Vol.2, IL Tridente. 2009. Ch.13 Endodontic instruments In 1961, Ingle established a basic, standardized shape for endodontic instruments and a standardized endodontic technique

Sonntag et al. (2008) found that preclinical endodontics training varied significantly according to the curriculum, instructor, and course content, and they announced that, as of 2008, most (63%) faculties in Germany taught root canal instrumentation with rotary Ni-Ti instruments EndoSequence Rotary Files Non-Calibrated SEQ RF35 .04 Taper 21 mm (4 Pack) 5008971U0. EndoSequence Rotary Files are electropolished to remove the surface imperfections naturally present in NiTi. This process yields a cleaner, stronger, safer and more efficient file. The patented Alternating Contact Point (ACP) design and precision non-cutting. rotary endodontic file. 1. Fiber Post Drill Products Description: Application domain: for dental implantology Material: Ultra high rust-proof and high wear-resistant stainless steel,ceramic LZQ is an OEM factory for all kinds of dental implant drills, Compare this product Remove from comparison tool. rotary endodontic file 2 Endodontic instruments made of NiTi shape-memory alloy have had a revolutionary impact on root canal treatment. This development has fostered a significant amount of research that is focused on enhancing metallic properties to improve clinical performance and safety which will significantly affect the outcome of root canal shaping and cleaning

ESX™ Rotary File System. So Sophisticated, Its Simple. ESX™ at a Glance. Two-File Rotary NiTI System. Compatible with all Endo Handpieces. Minimally invasive. Fully synchronized with BC Points and Posts. ESX™ instruments are provided in individually perforated sterile blister packs. Brochure ESX (PDF NiTi rotary instruments have been extensively used in endodontics since the physical properties of nitinol were defined in 1988. NiTi instruments have been introduced in dentistry due to its property of shape memory, super elasticity, and resistance to corrosion KTR Dental Laboratories and Products your source to an extensive selection of dental rotary instruments. Diamond Burs, Diamond Discs, Carbide Burs, Trimming and Finishing, TC Cutters, Polishers, Implant Drills and many other dental rotary instruments. RapidSet® Dental Model Polymer, a superior alternative to stone and a full line of dental implants and components endodontics instrument kit. Obtura III Max. Obtura III Max Accessories 822-609 Cleaning Kit, Solution and Brushes 825-103 Heater Reamer Tool 823-812 Obtura Max Plunger Shaft Assembly 823-813 Obtura III Max Multi-Tool 823-814 Obtura III Max Bushing 823-815 Compare this product Remove from comparison tool Introduction to Rotary Endodontic Instrument.pdf - Read online for free

specifically fracture, of rotary NiTi instruments were assessed by collecting and examining over 7,000 rotary NiTi instruments used in patients by 14 endodontists from four countries and subsequently discarded. Thirdly, an assessment was made of whether rotary NiTi instruments can be predictably cleaned in the busy private practice setting Alpen® Carbides Endo 14 - 14 DIAMONDS of high-precision mechanical instruments, dental pins and posts, carbide and diamond burs and other rotary instruments, as well as a comprehensive offering in the area of hygiene and patient safety. From Machine to Product. CARbides

Endodontic Instruments and Their Uses. Introduction: A. Aims:: to acquaint the student with the endodontic armamentarium. to relate the forms of the instruments to their functions and limitations. B. Instrument classification: present discussion is limited to hand-operated types: E. E. E,C, and S Rotary instrumentation with the ProGlider instrument, which has a progressive taper (2-8%), ensures wider pre-enlargement compared to a #15 K-file, which facilitates advancement of subsequent rotary instruments. 130 130. Peters OA, Peters CI, Schönenberger K, Barbakow F. ProTaper rotary root canal preparation: effects of canal anatomy on. Designed with a flame-shaped boring head with a non-cutting guide tip on a slender shaft. Used to reduce the curvature in the orifice of the canal, allowing greater access to the canal for cleaning and obturation. Instrument size can be easily identified by the number of grooves on each instrument. In addition to the standard 32mm length, 28mm. A comparative study of root canal preparation with NiTi-TEE and K3 rotary Ni-Ti instruments. Jodway B, Hülsmann M. Int Endod J. 2006 Jan;39(1):71-80. PMID: 16409331. Deformation and fracture of RaCe and K3 endodontic instruments according to the number of uses. Troian CH, Só MV, Figueiredo JA, Oliveira EP. Int Endod J. 2006 Aug;39(8):616-25

Rotary instrumentation has made a quantum leap in the field of endodontics. 9 These changes lead to the introduction of rotary endodontics in pediatric dentistry. However, the bizarre root canal morphology and thinner root dentin limited the use of rotary endodontics in primary teeth. 3 , 4 , 10 To overcome such barriers, various modified. HyFlex nickel-titanium rotary instruments after clinical use: metallurgical properties. International Endodontic Journal, 46, 720-729, 2013. Aim To analyse the type and location of defects in HyFlex CM instruments after clinical use in a graduate endodontic programme and to examine the impact of clinical use on their metallurgical properties

A variety of dental instrument drive devices, known in the art as handpieces, have been developed for rotating dental instruments. While the use of rotary handpiece driven endodontic files has achieved some degree of success, a continuing problem involves the self threading of the endodontic instrument into the canal whereby the instrument. Forty Endo-Training Blocks (REF A 0177, Dentsply Maillefer, Ballaigues, Switzerland) were used, which had a size of ISO #15, a 0.02 taper, a 35 degree curvature and a mean canal length of 18 mm. Standard artificial canals in the training blocks were used to minimize the variation in observations. They were divided into 4 groups depending on the. Endodontic file fracture has traditionally been considered an uncommon event; however, a recent perception of increased fracture incidence with rotary nickel-titanium (NiTi) instruments has emerged Objective: The aim of this study is to evaluate and measure the residual dentin thickness from the furcation entrance to the canal orifice after canal preparation using endodontic rotary instruments in extracted mandibular first molars.Materials and Methods: A total of 15 extracted mandibular molars were included in the study. They are further divided into three groups as follows: Group A, B.

rotary endodontic file. 1. Fiber Post Drill Products Description: Application domain: for dental implantology Material: Ultra high rust-proof and high wear-resistant stainless steel,ceramic LZQ is an OEM factory for all kinds of dental implant drills, Compare this product Remove from comparison tool. rotary endodontic file 2 Introduction: The effectiveness of ProTaper Universal and ProTaper Retreatment rotary instruments was compared to the Hedström files in the removal of filling material from root canals.Materials and Methods: Thirty-six extracted human mandibular premolars with a single straight root canal were shaped and filled with gutta-percha and AH Plus. The specimens were stored for 6 months at 37°C and. K3 is a third-generation, triple-fluted, asymmetric endodontic file system. Positive rake angle provides the active cutting action of the K3 endo files. The K3 rotary file's wide radial land provides blade support while adding peripheral strength to resist torsional and rotary stresses. The third radial land on K3 files stabilizes and keeps the instrument centered in the canal and minimizes. • Works in concert with GT® family of instruments • More translucent than metal posts for aesthetics and enhanced light transmission while curing • High flexure strength • More flexible than metal posts • High resistance to fracture • Passive, parallel shape creates less stress on roots for less chance of root fracture • Works in concert with GT family of instruments • Short.

Rotary in endodonticEndodontic Rotary Nickel Titanium Instrument | DeformationRotary instruments in Endodontics -part1(PDF) THE USE OF ROTARY INSTRUMENTS IN ENDODONTIC THERAPY(PDF) Dentinal Defects in Endodontically Treated Teeth

A 30-year-old male patient was referred to the endodontic specialty clinic at the College of Dentistry, Taibah University (Saudi Arabia) with an intracanal separated NiTi rotary instrument (F3 of the ProTaper system; Dentsply Maillefer, Ballaigues, Switzerland) in the canal of the maxillary right canine (#13) A variety of instruments are available for the extirpation of the pulp and the instrumentation and preparation of the root canal. Recently, nickel-titanium (NiTi) alloy is utilised for the manufacturing of endodontic instruments. Compared to other metals, these alloys are highly flexible, which significantly enhances ease of canal shaping. This review article gives an account in the advances. NiTi Endodontics Rotary Files. Over the last few years, endodontics has undergone a complete revolution with the introduction of the Nickel Titanium alloy for the manufacture of manual instruments initially and then rotary 3 endodontic instruments Aim: To evaluate students' perceptions and self-assessment of their experience, theoretical knowledge and practical abilities to use rotary nickel-titanium endodontic instruments. Methodology: A questionnaire was filled by fourth- and fifth-year students in Faculty of Dental Medicine, Sofia, Bulgaria. Data concerning self- assessment of theoretical knowledge and practical experience were.

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